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Wednesday, 26 October 2016

1.      Chapter 1. introduction


Zone de Texte: Figure 1: stand outIn this thesis the dilemma of kids with special need in Malaysia will be explored, literature review on the Effects of the Physical Environment on Children’s Development, to investigate the relationship of built environment and performance of ADHD kids; an integrated school that can cater all types of learners to provide learning and treatment simultaneously. Enhance the learning experience for ADHD kids.

1.1.   Understanding ADHD

        The term ADHD, as known as attention deficit hyperactive disorder or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological condition often used to describe someone who has difficulty in focusing, difficulty staying seated, hyperactivity or is unable to control their behaviours, these behaviours can be classified into two main categories: hyperactivity-impulsiveness and poor sustained attention.  ADHD is not a disorder of attention, rather it’s an abnormal development in the brain circuitry that controls inhibition and self-discipline (Pierangelo & Giuliani, 2015). Everyone are born with certain skills in order to live through daily life, but people with diagnosed ADHD they learnt differently from others and often have difficulties to regulate themselves. These difficulty can exist in the areas of behaviour, attention and motor movements (Strong & Michael O.Flanagan, 2005, p. 10). Person who has diagnosed ADHD showing potential difficulties in many different area and the conditional itself can be vary from one and another. For instance, one child with ADHD may display significant problem in reading, on the other hand another may have no reading problems but has significant difficulty with written expression (Beisner, n.a., p. 1).  As can be seen, inattention component of ADHD affects educational experience of these children have causes them to have difficulty to give close attention to details, make careless mistake not to mentioned if students are being placed in mainstream classroom with numerous amount of distraction.

1.2.   Causes of ADHD
              ADHD has traditionally been viewed as a problem related to attention, stemming from an inability of the brain to filter competing sensory inputs such as sight and sound. Recent research, however, has shown that children with ADHD do not have difficulty in that area. Instead, researchers now believe that children with ADHD are unable to inhibit their impulsive motor responses to such input (Barkley, 1997).

1.3.   Statistic of ADHD

        ADHD is a complex condition also as a highly prevalent disorder that is estimated to affect between 5 to 10 percent of children and 3 to 6 percent of adult worldwide. Currently Malaysia has a prevalence rate of 3.9 percent (LAI, 2014). It is most commonly diagnosed development disorder in children, a condition that has been recognized but constantly being overlooked in Malaysia.

1.4.   Addressing ADHD stigma/ Stigma of having a condition of ADHD

              “It is not our differences that divide us. It is our inability to recognize, accept, and celebrate those differences.” ― Audre Lorde, Our Dead behind Us: Poems

Children should be provided with the education system and learning environment that suit their learning style, as children who can cope and adapt in regular school, there are children who cannot. In Malaysia, parents are reluctant to send their children to a designated learning centre, because public awareness regarding special learning difficulty is relatively low in Malaysia, common belief disorder will improve as the child growth older, stigma of having their children in a different learning environment will be seen as a mental illness, these individual are frequently being labelled as problematic child with hyper energy instead. Apart from that, its diagnosis and treatment have been considered controversial, the actuality of the disorder itself and the use of medications in treatment, there are arguments say it is a made up illness by pharmaceutical company, designated to sell drugs to kids.

1.5.   Treatment for ADHD in Malaysia
Early detection and early intervention program – significant improvement. Research shows that behaviour therapy is an important part of treatment for children with ADHD. ADHD affects not only a child’s ability to pay attention or sit still at school, it also affects relationships with family and other children.  Children with ADHD often show behaviours that can be very disruptive to others.

1.5.1. Behaviour Therapy
     Behaviour therapy is a treatment option that can help reduce these behaviours. It is often helpful to start behaviour therapy as soon as a diagnosis is made. (Strong & Michael O.Flanagan, 2005)

1.5.3.Family Support & Education
1.5.4.ADHD & Classroom

1.6.   Aims & Objectives
              The awareness of learning disability in Malaysia is relatively low compare to other country, ADHD is not a common term and topic that Malaysian talk about, people tend to ignore when the problem does not affect them. Therefore the aim of this thesis is to provide a better understanding on how student who has diagnosed ADHD can learnt in regular school by overcoming the design issues of current school in terms of classroom design, building program and space planning and to overcome the stigma of kids with ADHD. Currently there is zero school that is designed or built with appropriate teaching and learning facilities or material to cater for students who learn differently especially ADHD kids. Therefore, design strategies will be proposed in order to establish a guideline when designing school to cater all types of students with different learning ability to learn under a same roof in the future.


2.      Problem Statement
2.1.   Existing problems and issues
2.1.1.   Kids with special needs are constantly being overlooked/ neglected
2.1.2.   Lack of knowledge and awareness
2.1.3.   Stigma of having mental disorder, missed out early treatment
2.1.4.   Design of classroom in general school does not fit the way ADHD kids learnt

Kids with special needs are constantly being overlooked and undertreated. Student who was diagnosed with ADHD is attending regular school in regular classroom is common in Malaysia, according to Ms. Cheeh; a private school teacher from Sri. KL Subang, who have been teaching for the past 6 years and have two diagnosed ADHD students in her classroom.
                                                                                                    Figure 2: Location of Sri KL Subang
Students of ADHD are highly sensitive to stimulants and Sri KL is located in Subang Jaya, Petaling district facing SS15 roundabout and LDP highway which poses a lot of noises and pollution during both day and night time. Students with ADHD ….

Parents of both students are aware of the existing problems but refused…

2.2.    Existing ADHD centre Design ( Hills Learning )
2.2.1.  Financial issue
2.2.2.  Restrictive environment

3.      Chapter 3 – Design Strategies
3.1.   Classroom Design
3.1.1.Natural lighting

        A very important component of a strategy for effectively educating children with ADHD involves physical classroom accommodations. Children with ADHD often have difficulty adjusting to the structured environment of a classroom, determining what is important, and focusing on their assigned work. They are easily distracted by other children or by nearby activities in the classroom. As a result, many children with ADHD benefit from accommodations that reduce distractions in the classroom environment and help them to stay on task and learn. Certain accommodations within the physical and learning environments of the classroom can benefit children with ADHD.
        Teachers can help prepare their students with ADHD to achieve by applying the principles of effective teaching when they introduce, conduct, and conclude each lesson. Students with ADHD learn best with a carefully structured academic lesson-one where the teacher explains what he or she wants children to learn in the current lesson and places these skills and knowledge in the context of previous lessons. Effective teachers preview their expectations about what students will learn and how they should behave during the lesson.

3.2.   Minimalize Sensory Distractor
3.2.1. Space planning & Zoning

3.3.   Material application


Monday, 26 September 2016

Hi Leong click here for research project proposal

To investigate the relationship of built environment and performance of ADHD kids; an integrated ADHD centre that provides learning and treatment simultaneously.
Keywords: ADHD, accommodate, built environment, classroom design, learning, treatment, simultaneously, Malaysia

1.      Introduction

1.1.    Introduction
1.1.1.  To further study the functions of special class room design, resource rooms or any special activities run in regular schools and how they are utilized to meet special educational needs of individual children.
1.1.2.  How to integrated learning environment/ restrictive environment to cater
1.1.3.  ADHD kids symptoms & needs

1.2.    Problem Statement
1.2.1.  Kids with special needs are constantly being overlooked/ neglected, and segregated from mainstream schools.
1.2.2.  Limited /incomplete facilities to carry out treatment in schools
1.2.3.  ADHD kids have no choice but to study in general school due to insufficient facilities

1.3.    Objective of Study
1.3.1.  To Unify/ integrate facilities for ADHD kids
1.3.2.  Provide a least restrictive environment
1.3.3.  Provide better learning environment
1.3.4.  Better understanding when designing for ADHD kids with special needs with appropriate teaching and learning facilities both physical and mentally
Tasputra was the first place in Malaysia to install and actively use this Dutch-origin method of therapy. It is designed to stimulate the five senses - sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It uses a unique combination of peaceful music, special lighting, gentle vibration, tactile sensation and aromatherapy in a safe, secure atmosphere. Each child has its own specially designed programme.

1.4.    Scope of Study
1.4.1.  existing built environment for ADHD kids
1.4.2.  existing interior design for ADHD kids
1.4.3.  To prove ADHD kids perform better in a special designed environment

1.5.    Methodology of Study
1.5.1.  Visit and analyse existing ADHD centre
1.5.2.Interview with ADHD specialist

2.      Literature Review

2.1.    Definition of ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactive disorder described as someone who has difficulty to pay attention and easily distracted, one of the key symptom of ADHD. Along with being hyperactive, difficulty to stay focus on a task and fidgeting. Besides that, ADHD tend to be impulsive, thus unable to control and mostly unware of his or her behaviour.
2.1.1.  Fear of intense noises
2.1.2.  Insensitivity to pain
2.1.3.  Repetitive behaviours (Hand flapping, rocking and head banging, create a safer environment)
2.1.4.  Difficulty in communications
2.1.5.  Smells
2.1.6.  Temperature

2.2.    Definition of Multisensory architecture

2.2.1.   Light
2.2.2.  Noise
2.2.3.  Smell
2.2.4.  Touch

3.      Research Methodology

Type of Research i.e. Books, Site Visits, Surveys
Proposed Start date:


ADHD for Dummies
Jun 2016
The Built Environment and Public Health
Jun 2016
Handbook of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
July 2016
Identifying, Assessing, and Treating ADHD at School
July 2016
Case Studies in Abnormal Psychology Ninth Edition
Sept 2016


July 2016
July 2016

(Your Children and ADHD: Environmental Factors)
July 2016
(ADHD: Creating a Healthy School Environment)
July 2016

Site Visit

Kits4Kids@Kota Damansara
July 2016

Malaysia Psychology Centre @ Jalan Desa
July 2016

3.1.    Introduction
3.2.    Research Objective
3.3.    Data Collection
3.3.1.  Analyse & Observation in Existing Built Environment for ADHD centre in Malaysia
3.3.2.  Interview with Person In Charge
3.4.    Analysis Data
3.5.    Summary

4.      Case Study / Problem statement (Current issue of ADHD centre in Malaysia)

4.1.   Introduction
An interview will be carried out to understand current dilemma of ADHD centre in terms of facilities or learning environment. What kind of problem will parents meet while they finding a suitable environment for their ADHD kids and what should they put into considerate?
4.2.   Location of existing ADHD Centre in Malaysia
4.3.   Design of existing ADHD Centre in Malaysia

5.      Relationship of built environment and performance of ADHD kids;

5.1.   Performance
5.1.1.To study the performance of adhd kids in the current built environment
5.1.2.To evaluate or examine level of distraction
5.1.3.Interview or seek for evidences from psychologist

6.      Integrated ADHD centre
6.1.   Building program
6.1.1.Integrated class room design
6.1.2.Activities that can train ADHD kids to concentrate
6.1.3.Function room
6.1.4.Criteria building for ADHD (design strategies)

7.      Conclusion

Agreed by,

STUDENT NAME              :
SIGNATURE                     :

MODULE TUTOR                     :
SIGNATURE                            :                                  

A chart / checklist of regular school’s facilities compare w what kind of environment ADHD supposed to be in ?
To proof ADHD kids could perform better if study in an environment designated to cater their needs,
the current condition of ADHD kids’s learning environemt ni nmalaysia and constantly neglected & insufficient learning facilities for them

According to Sunder, the attention disorders may be (

> > > primary or secondary. Primary disorders of attention are
> > > caused by a direct disruption of the central cortical
> > > attentional mechanism. Secondary inattention represents
> > > a behavioral syndrome cause by conditions arising
> > > outside of the primary attentional network but with a
> > > very close relationship or overlap with this primary
> > > network, and may be intrinsic or environmental in origin.
> > > Sensory input, usually auditory or visual, is necessary
> > > to activate the attentional network in the parietal
> > > cortex. Deaf children are frequently overactive and
> > > inattentive. Lesser degrees of deficit on the input processing
> > > may cause similar attentional deficit.4
> > > The cortex must be adequately prepared for cognitive
> > > tasks. Both, understimulated and overstimulated states
> > > (drug effects, sedation, anxiety, delirium or psychosis) may
> > > induce attentional deficit. As the cortex has to be capable
> > > of performing the tasks demanded, the deficit observed in
> > > mental retardation, specific learning disabili ties, and autistic
> > > disorders predispose for an attentional deficit besides
> > > the specific cognitive process defects.
A mismatch of > > > educational envir&mental, expectation, and demand
> > > with the specific abilities of a particular child may be the
> > > source of attentional problems. Up to 30% of children
> > > referred because of attention deficit have been reported4
> > > to have language disorders with secondary inattention,
> > > which improve with appropriate educational placement __
> > > and language intervention.4

Abnormal psychology

(Sprague, Cohen, & Werry, 1974) about Ken’s behavior. The instrument verifi ed
the picture of hyperactive behavior that had already emerged (see Table 22.1 ).
The therapist arranged to spend a morning in Ken’s classroom. During
that time, Ken was out of his seat inappropriately six times. On one occasion,
he jumped up to look out the window when a noise, probably a car backfi ring,
was heard. He went to talk to other children three times. Ken got up twice and
just began walking quickly around the classroom. Even when he stayed seated,
he was often not working and instead was fi dgeting or bothering other children.
Any noise, even another child coughing or dropping a pencil, distracted him
from his work. When his teacher spoke to him, he did not seem to hear; it was
not until the teacher had begun yelling at him that he paid any attention.

pg 337

ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood. Adolescents and adults with ADHD tend to develop coping mechanisms to compensate for some or all of their impairments

One of the evident symptom is easily distracted, by the learning environment?

Tasputra was the first place in Malaysia to install and actively use this Dutch-origin method of therapy. It is designed to stimulate the five senses - sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It uses a unique combination of peaceful music, special lighting, gentle vibration, tactile sensation and aromatherapy in a safe, secure atmosphere. Each child has its own specially designed programme.

Individual Play Therapy
After the goals of parent management training had been met, Dr. Bell began
to meet individually with Tyler in play therapy. Play therapy is used with preschool
children because they often use symbolic play to manage their feelings
and practice new skills. Children that age have diffi culty verbalizing their feelings
directly. Initially, Tyler was aloof and angry when he entered the playroom
and resisted symbolic play. Dr. Bell said she understood how mad he must be
at her for helping his mom change the rules of their family. During the fi rst few

The best established type of treatment for ODD is parent management training.
There is substantial evidence that this treatment is very effective for reducing
children’s disruptive behaviors and improving family functioning (Farmer,
Compton, Burns, & Robertson, 2002).

pg 348,349 Opposition Defiant Disorder

Medication is not typically used for ODD unless it is comorbid with ADHD,
and then drugs for ADHD are often used. To control aggressive behavior, clinicians
sometimes use antidepressants or anticonvulsants that are typically used
to treat bipolar disorder (Althoff, Rettew, & Hudziak, 2003)

pg350 Opposition Defiant Disorder

1.       Should ADHD kids have an independent learning environment? Or can they cope/ thrive in mainstream learning environments?
2.      A restrictive environment or normal environment? Does it segregate them more distinctively from the society
3.      If segregated, how to develop their social and communication skills effectively?
4.      Dilemma of ADHD centre/ family (issue, problems facing)? Environment? facilities?
5.      What kind of problems will parents face in finding a suitable place for their ADHD kids?
6.      Special classroom seating arrangement ?

What’s the consideration you will thought about you’re looking for a school for your kid ?
in terms of environment or classroom ?

Significant evidence shows built environment help adhd kids in learniing